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                                                                                                     $$$$ cryptocurrency $$$$

A cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual currency that is secured by cryptography, which makes it nearly impossible to counterfeit or double-spend. Many cryptocurrencies are decentralized networks based on blockchain technology—a distributed ledger enforced by a disparate network of computers.


                                                                                      $$$$  Understanding Crypto Tokens  $$$$

Crypto tokens, which are also called crypto assets, are special kinds of virtual currency tokens that reside on their own blockchains and represent an asset or utility. Most often, they are used to fundraise for crowd sales, but they can also be used as a substitute for other things.

For example, one can have a crypto token that represents x number of customer loyalty points on a blockchain that is used to manage such details for a retail chain. There can be another crypto token that gives entitlement to the token holder to view 10 hours of streaming content on a video-sharing blockchain. Another crypto token may even represent other cryptocurrencies, such as a crypto token being equal to 15 bitcoins on a particular blockchain. Such crypto tokens are tradable and transferrable among the various participants of the blockchain.

In essence, the cryptocurrencies and altcoins are specific virtual currencies that have their own dedicated blockchains and are primarily used as a medium for digital payments. On the other hand, the crypto tokens operate on top of a blockchain that acts as a medium for the creation and execution of decentralized apps and smart contracts, and the tokens are used to facilitate the transactions.

Crypto tokens are usually created, distributed, sold, and circulated through the standard initial coin offering (ICO) process that involves a crowdfunding exercise to fund project development.

These crypto-assets often serve as the transaction units on the blockchains that are created using the standard templates like that of the Ethereum network that allows a user to create tokens. Such blockchains work on the concept of smart contracts or decentralized applications, where the programmable, self-executing code is used to process and manage the various transactions occurring on the blockchain.


                                                                                                                   $$$$ Altcoins $$$$

Altcoins are cryptocurrencies other than Bitcoin. The majority of altcoins are forks of Bitcoin with small uninteresting changes. This page categorises different ways altcoins have modified Bitcoin. Many people prefer the term "shitcoin" to clearly distinguish all these altcoins from Bitcoin.


                                                                                                                   $$$$ BITCOIN $$$$

Bitcoin, launched in 2009, was the first of a new kind of asset called cryptocurrency, a decentralized form of digital cash that eliminates the need for traditional intermediaries like banks and governments to make financial transactions.

Instead, bitcoin is powered through a combination of peer-to-peer technology — a network of individuals, much like the volunteer editors who create Wikipedia — and software-driven cryptography, the science of passing secret information that can only be read by the sender and receiver. This creates a currency backed by code rather than items of physical value, like gold or silver, or by trust in central authorities like the U.S. dollar or Japanese yen.

“What is needed is an electronic payment system based on cryptographic proof instead of trust, allowing any two willing parties to transact directly with each other without the need for a trusted third party,” wrote Satoshi Nakamoto —  the pseudonym of the mysterious bitcoin creator, who remains unknown — in a white paper introducing the open-source technology

Each bitcoin (trading symbol “BTC,” though “XBT” is also used) is a computer file stored in a digital wallet on a computer or smartphone. To understand how bitcoin works, it helps to understand these terms and a little context:

Blockchain: Bitcoin is powered by open-source code known as blockchain, which creates a shared public ledger. Each transaction is a “block” that is “chained” to the code, creating a permanent record of each transaction. Blockchain technology is at the heart of more than 2,200 cryptocurrencies that have followed in bitcoin’s wake.
Private and public keys: A bitcoin wallet contains a public key and a private key, which work together to allow the owner to initiate and digitally sign transactions, providing proof of authorization.
Bitcoin miners: Miners — or members of the peer-to-peer platform — then independently confirm the transaction using high-speed computers, typically within 10 to 20 minutes. Miners are paid in bitcoin for their efforts.
Bitcoin value follows the law of supply and demand — and because demand waxes and wanes, there’s a lot of volatility in the cryptocurrency’s price..


                                                                                                                 $$$$ SATOSHI $$$$

The satoshi is the smallest unit that is recorded on the bitcoin blockchains: One satoshi represents a decimal, seven zeros and a 1, followed by any of the bitcoin tickers — i.e., bitcoin (BTC), bitcoin SV (BSV) or bitcoin cash (BCH). In other words, 0.00000001 or 1.0 * 10-8, in scientific notation.

Satoshi                    BTC
1                    0.00000001
10                    0.0000001
100                    0.000001
1 000                  0.00001
10 000                    0.0001
100 000                    0.001
1 000 000            0.01
10 000 000           0.1
100 000 000               1


                                                                                                                        $$$$ ETH $$$$

 Ethereum is an open-source, blockchain-based, decentralized software platform used for its own cryptocurrency, ether. It enables SmartContracts and Distributed Applications (ĐApps) to be built and run without any downtime, fraud, control, or interference from a third party.

Ethereum is not just a platform but also a programming language (Turing complete) running on a blockchain, helping developers to build and publish distributed applications.

Understanding Ethereum
The applications run on Ethereum are run on a platform-specific cryptographic token, ether. During 2014, Ethereum had launched a pre-sale for ether which had received an overwhelming response. Ether is like a vehicle for moving around on the Ethereum platform and is mostly sought by developers looking to develop and run applications inside Ethereum. Ether is used broadly for two purposes: it is traded as a digital currency exchange like other cryptocurrencies, and it is used inside Ethereum to run applications and even to monetize work.

According to Ethereum, it can be used to “codify, decentralize, secure, and trade just about anything.” One of the big projects around Ethereum is Microsoft’s partnership with ConsenSys which offers “Ethereum Blockchain as a Service (EBaaS) on Microsoft Azure so Enterprise clients and developers can have a single click cloud-based blockchain developer environment.”

In 2016, Ethereum was split into two separate blockchains, Ethereum, and Ethereum Classic, after a malicious actor stole more than $50 million worth of funds which had been raised on the DAO, a set of smart contracts originating from Ethereum's software platform. The new Ethereum was a hard fork from the original software intended to protect against further malware attacks. As of September 2019, Ethereum was the second-largest virtual currency on the market, behind only Bitcoin. It is much faster to acquire ether currency than bitcoin (about 14 or 15 seconds to bitcoin's near-uniform 10 minutes), and there are far more ether units in circulation than there is bitcoin.


                                                                                                                 $$$$ XRP $$$$

XRP is a token used for representing the transfer of value across the Ripple Network. The main purpose of XRP is to be a mediator for other - both cryptocurrencies and fiat - exchanges. The best way to describe XRP is a ‘Joker’. Not the creepy Batman enemy, but the card that can be any other card. If you want to exchange dollars to euro, it can be dollar with dollars and euro with euros to minimize the commission

 Ripple is both a platform and a currency. The Ripple platform is an open source protocol which is designed to allow fast and cheap transactions.

the platform allows to make payments in any currency including Bitcoin and have a minimal internal transaction commission of $0.00001, yes that’s the right amount of zeros. The only reason it’s not free is to prevent DDos attacks. 

An interesting fact: after the transaction the amount of $0.00001 ‘disappears’ from the platform and can’t be replenished. So, with every transaction the world becomes $0.00001 poorer. It is designed that way to prevent spammers attacks.

                                                                                                     What is Ripple used for
Low commission currency exchange. There are many currencies that can’t be directly converted to each other. So, banks need to use the US dollar as a mediator. So, there is a double commission: converting currency A to USD and USD to currency B. Ripple is a mediator too, but much cheaper than USD.

Fast international transactions. Average transaction time is 4 seconds. Compare it to hour or more for Bitcoin and a few days for regular banking systems.

Payment ecosystem. User can basically issue his own currency for fast and cheap transaction. For example, one can create a currency to buy and see vintage vinyls or action figures between the collectors. 


                                                                                                                $$$$ DOGECOIN  $$$$

 Dogecoin is a cryptocurrency that was developed as a joke at the end of 2013. The digital coin attracted an online community, largely drawn to its sheer ridiculousness.

Dogecoin is based on an old Internet meme that became popular in 2013: Doge, an image of a quizzical Shiba Inu, overlaid with fragments of English in multicolored Comic Sans typeface. The bits of speech—"wow," "so doge," "such meme"—narrate a silly, imagined interior monologue of the dog, which gushes with wonder.

Dogecoin is an open-source digital currency that is used by internet users worldwide.

The framework is based on Litecoin, meaning that all modifications and updates made to it will also be made to Dogecoin.

The initial aim of the coin was not to create an innovative technology or something novel and impressive, but rather to create an easy to use transaction platform.

Dogecoin has a strong and loyal userbase who use Doge as a currency rather than just hold it as a speculative asset. Although, like other cryptocurrencies, Dogecoin can definitely be held as an investment or traded in pursuit of making a profitable return.


                                                                                                                     $$$$ USDT  $$$$
Tether (USDT) is a cryptocurrency designed for each token to be represented by an underlying US dollar. Each USDT token is tethered to a US dollar that is held in Tether Limited’s reserve balance and can be obtained through the Tether platform. Tether has been issued on the Omni, Ethereum, Tron, EOS, Liquid and Algorand blockchains (Source).  

The most popular stablecoin, Tether, has propelled its way into the third-largest position by cryptocurrency market capitalization. At the time of publication, a number of market valuation aggregators show that Tether’s market cap is between $9.1 to $10.1 billion.

Tether (USDT) is a well known stablecoin token issued by the company Tether Limited. The company claims each token is backed by a single U.S. dollar, but during the last few years, the firm admitted the backing included loans as well.

USDT has always been controversial, but even with the contention, tether is the most popular stablecoin by far. This week cryptocurrency proponents have been discussing how tether’s market cap has grown massively since the beginning of 2020. Since January, USDT’s market valuation spiked by 144%.

Today the market data and analysis web portal, Messari, tether (USDT) has a $10.2 billion market valuation and $1.4 million in 24-hour global trade volume. Statistics on Coinmarketcap.com indicates that the market cap for tether (USDT) is $9.1 billion and a whopping $20 billion in 24-hour trades.

A number of other market aggregators show tether’s market valuation is just above the $9.1 billion mark. There also a number of other stablecoins that are doing well growth-wise, but not nearly as exponential as USDT.


                                                                                                                 $$$$ LITECOIN $$$$

Litecoin was one of the earliest cryptocurrencies to enter the market. Consequently, it remains one of the largest coins in the sector based on market capitalization. This hugely popular coin can be found on nearly every crypto exchange. Also, it’s one of the most widely accepted cryptocurrencies in the world. You can use Litecoin for purchasing goods, services, or even investing in other crypto projects as they emerge.

Like most cryptocurrencies, Litecoin utilizes blockchain technology to remain decentralized. Decentralized currencies differ from traditional fiat currencies in many ways. Primarily, they are not issued from a central authority such as a government. Instead, Litecoins are produced via a сrурtоgrарhіс рrоtосоl. Officially, Litecoin’s are released under MIT/X11 lісеnѕеѕ.

Litecoin functions in a manner very similar to Bitcoin. In fact, this online payment system was directly inspired by Satoshi Nakamoto and his release of the Bitcoin protocol. Many people are surprised to learn that Litecoin was one of the earliest Bitcoin forks in the market. As such, this cryptocurrency is technically almost іdеntісаl tо Bіtсоіn, albeit with some crucial differences.


                                                                                                                        $$$$ XLM $$$$

Stellar is a platform that was designed to facilitate the transfer of funds instantly, anywhere in the world. Through the use of their XLM cryptocurrency, the Stellar network is able to facilitate even multi-currency transactions.

There are several exciting use cases for XLM:

Microtransactions. Right now the cost of making small transactions can be cost-prohibitive, which is why you see things like credit card minimums at your local store. With Stellar, a fee of $0.01 is enough to handle 600,000 transactions. This would allow merchants who sell low-dollar items to not have to worry about the cost of selling their goods.
International money transfer. Sending currency to a recipient in another country is an arduous process that involves several layers and lots of fees. With Stellar, transactions can happen instantly. Stellar uses its native lumen asset to move money from one currency to another.
Mobile money transactions. Platforms like Venmo and Cash are popular apps for easily sending money to other people. But these apps are simply more convenient forms of the current banking and money transfer systems. Stellar is already being used for this purpose in Nigeria.


                                                                                                                   $$$$ TRON $$$$

Tron is a decentralized entertainment and content-sharing platform that uses blockchain and peer-to-peer (P2P) technology. You can think of it as a next-generation social media outlet on which you can create and share content with anyone, anywhere in the world. Tronix is the basic unit of accounts in Tron’s blockchain. It is the currency that pays you for your content, and is often referred to as its ticker symbol, 'TRX'.

People who enjoy social media, online gambling, and other forms of online entertainment, will enjoy Tron.

Using the Tron cryptocurrency’s ecosystem, not only can you share content with other people, but you are compensated as a content creator for the content and data that you create. This model serves in direct opposition to how traditional social media companies, such as Facebook, monetize user data. They often do it without the user knowing, reaping in the benefits for themselves. When you use Tron cryptocurrency, you are in control of your data and you will be compensated for your content.

The biggest benefit of using Tron crypto is that you are empowering artists and content creators all over the world into having ownership over the content they create.

Tron is leading a movement that some refer to as the third web. Although it sounds futuristic, the third web, or web 3.0, will enable people to use the internet as it was originally intended to be used for - as a decentralized, open network.

During the dotcom bubble, the internet had taken a turn away from its decentralized origin. Social media giants in Silicon Valley built on top of the infrastructure that was given to them and rewired it so that Tech Giants could make money from user data. Cambridge Analytica is the case and point of this system. However, in the Third Web, Tron will put the power back in the users' hands, so that they are in control of their own data.

By using Tron crypto, you are leading the internet back down its original path. You are putting data back under your control where you have the choice of not disclosing or monetizing data for your own gain. So one of the answers to what is Tron coin is something that will lead internet to its original purpose.


                                                                                                                 $$$$ Bitcoin Cash  $$$$

Bitcoin Cash (BCH) is a cryptocurrency that intends to offer an alternative to the world’s oldest and most widely traded cryptocurrency, Bitcoin (XBT). 

Launching in 2017, Bitcoin Cash was created by a group of Bitcoin users who disagreed with the roadmap proposed by the project’s principal developer group, Bitcoin Core, and who believed different technical decisions were needed to bring Bitcoin to a global audience.

Bitcoin Cash proponents tended to believe Bitcoin required modifications to make it competitive with traditional payment systems like Visa and PayPal. They also advocated for lowering the fees users pay to send transactions, preferring to shift these costs to other parts of the network. 

Toward this goal, Bitcoin Cash modified Bitcoin’s code and released a new software version with features that were no longer compatible with Bitcoin. At launch, this effectively split Bitcoin into two blockchains (Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash) and two separate assets (XBT and BCH). 

This meant any user who owned XBT could claim an equal balance of BCH at the time the two blockchains separated. 

Since then, Bitcoin Cash has been quick to add new features, increasing the amount of data it can store in each block to 32 MB. (Bitcoin has since moved to an entirely different system for counting its transaction data.)

Bitcoin Cash has also since borrowed features from other cryptocurrencies, including functionality that enables users to launch new types of tokens on its blockchain.

Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash differ most sharply in their approach to overall design philosophy.

Bitcoin Cash developers generally see consumer payments as more essential to growing BCH’s value in the short term, and so users may find it better suited for online spending. 

Bitcoin Cash’s most notable feature is that the blocks in its blockchain can be larger, allowing it to process more transactions every time one is added. The additional space enables users to avoid fees used on Bitcoin to determine priority in times of heavy demand. 

This also means that Bitcoin Cash users may have difficulty downloading their own copy of the blockchain. As blocks are larger, storing and auditing this record may be more costly. 

Bitcoin Cash users may also have to upgrade their software more frequently and exercise more care when doing so. As Bitcoin Cash’s developers add and change features at a faster rate, there is a greater chance some might be rejected by the network. 

Already, this more aggressive attitude to upgrades has caused Bitcoin Cash to split into two networks, Bitcoin Cash and Bitcoin SV. 

Why Does BCH Have Value?
Proponents of Bitcoin Cash believe that by focusing on making its transactions cheaper, consumers will begin to choose BCH in online transactions, making it more valuable.

Bitcoin Cash also maintains a number of the same properties as Bitcoin, including its scarcity. This includes the rule that only 21 million BCH can be created, and that the amount of new BCH introduced to the network is scheduled to decline over time (in events known halvings). 

As of the end of 2019, roughly 18.1 million BCH were in circulation, with 12.5 BCH being introduced with each block. In 2020, this figure will decline to 6.25 BCH.

Given the similarities of Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash, traders may see it as a hedge that reduces their risk should Bitcoin’s roadmap limit its adoption or make its technology less valuable.


                                                                                                                    $$$$ Chainlink  $$$$

Chainlink is a decentralized oracle service. It improves smart contract interconnectivity by granting smart contracts access to reliable data feeds, APIs, payments, and other resources.

Essentially, Chainlink is a middleware between on-chain and off-chain systems. By giving smart contracts access to off-chain resources, Chainlink lets them react to real-world events and execute agreements that would otherwise need external proof of performance.

The Chainlink ecosystem is built around the LINK network and LINK token. Initially, Chainlink solutions are built on Ethereum blockchain, but the company intends to support all major smart contract chains.

Chainlink uses different nodes to obtain the requested data. They form a consensus before returning the data to the smart contract. This way the smart contract doesn’t rely on a single oracle. Also, Chainlink nodes can conduct both one-time and multiple times data retrieval tasks. The data reception can be scheduled, which turns Chainlink nodes into a sort of “data feeds” for smart contracts.

The Chainlink network has two interactive parts: the on-chain and off-chain components.

On-Chain Component
Chainlink's on-chain component is made of oracle contracts on Ethereum’s blockchain. They monitor and process users' data requests.

Whenever there is a request for some off-chain data, they transfer the request (contract) to the Chainlink network, where it’s processed into a native blockchain contract. Then, these Chainlink contracts match the request with a suitable oracle service. The Chainlink contracts are made of three parts: a reputation contract, an order-matching contract, and an aggregating contract.

The reputation contract records oracle-service-provider performance metrics and checks its track record.
The order-matching contract logs the user's proposal on the network, collects bids from the oracle providers, and selects them according to the reputation contract analysis.
The aggregating contract collects all the oracle providers' responses and computes the final collective answer to the original query.


                                                                                                                   $$$$ EOS $$$$

The EOS blockchain is an Ethereum competitor that has developed its own identity.

Key Takeaways
EOS is a blockchain designed to compete with Ethereum.
It offers free transactions, unique governance, and high transaction throughput.
EOS popularized the delegated proof-of-stake governance model.

EOS is a blockchain designed to compete with Ethereum. Like Ethereum, it supports smart contracts and DApps, while also providing high transaction throughput, free transactions, and improved performance.

Beyond those goals, EOS has taken on a life of its own: it is now best known for popularizing delegated proof-of-stake, which adds an element of democracy to the blockchain.

Token Summary
EOS raised $4 billion during its 2017 ICO. When the blockchain went live in June 2018, it became the fifth largest token on the crypto market, boasting a market cap of $13 billion. Today, EOS has a roughly $2.5 billion market capitalization, putting it in the top 10 on CoinMarketCap.

The EOS cryptocurrency is listed on several major exchanges, including Binance, Bitfinex, Bithumb, Bittrex, Coinbase Pro, Gate.io, HitBTC, Huobi, Kraken, KuCoin, OKEx, Poloniex, and Switcheo.

Token Use Cases
There are a few different applications for the EOS token:

DApp developers can use the token to reserve transaction resources
Block producers can earn the token from inflation
EOS holders can stake their coins and elect block producers
Coinholders can earn rewards by staking on EOS REX
Users can spend the token in DApps and on other websites
Delegated Proof-of-Stake
EOS relies on delegated proof-of-stake (DPoS) consensus. Coinholders continuously elect 21 block producers, who process transactions and make governance decisions.

Typically, individuals do not run block producer nodes. Block producers are usually companies that are capable of providing substantial computer resources and consistent uptime.

Reliable block producers earn rewards. Block producers that fail to provide a minimum level of service are generally voted out of the top 21 “active” rankings and fall into a list of candidates for the top 21.

Accusations of Centralization
Though EOS’s DPoS model allows coinholders to have a say in the blockchain’s governance, it has been criticized on several fronts.

One issue is that block producers can vote alongside regular users, which has led to accusations of vote collusion and vote-buying among block producers. Furthermore, block producers can create “sock puppets” and fill more than one position in the block producers list.

Reforms and alternative vote weighting systems such as “one token, one vote” have been suggested as a solution to corruption.

The fact that the system puts power into the hands of just a few block producers is another issue. Recent referendums have proposed increasing the number of active block producers from 21 to 43, which could distribute power more widely.

Referendums and Voting
In addition to electing block producers, EOS allows users to vote on matters through a referendum system directly.

EOS is a popular blockchain with unique benefits:

High transaction throughput
Free transactions for end-users
Governance based on user votes
A robust DApp ecosystem
However, the blockchain has a few obstacles:

DApp developers must pay for transaction bandwidth
Power is centralized to some extent
Block producer corruption is still a concern
Spam transactions are an ongoing issue
It’s hard to say whether EOS will ever replace Ethereum. Both blockchains have vastly different communities and are used for different kinds of applications. But, with its own set of benefits and a strong community, it seems like EOS is here to stay.


                                                                                                                        $$$$ DAI $$$$

 Dai is a decentralized stablecoin created by MakerDAO (MKR). One Dai equals one US dollar (1:1 ratio) and will always remain so until the token is taken out of the circulation.

Dai maintains stable value without centralized trust in a clever and interesting way. It shifts following market changes and thus keeps a steady price against other cryptocurrencies. The process is facilitated by the Maker platform along with the MKR token, CDP smart contracts, and several other stabilization mechanisms. There is no need for a centralized authority that oversees fiat-collateralized stablecoins like Tether (USDT), nor any traditional bank backs it. The project lives entirely on the Ethereum blockchain and its smart contracts, and that makes Dai a truly trustless and decentralized stablecoin which cannot be shut down nor censored.

In summary, the project brings the following benefits:

One Dai will always be worth $1.
No government or other centralized authority can shut it down.
No individual can control it.
Like other cryptocurrencies, it can be exchanged directly bypassing all middlemen.
It can be traded freely as any other ERC-20 token.
It brings trustless stability to the volatile crypto ecosystem.
Anyone from any place in the globe can receive and send it just by having an Ethereum wallet.

How Does DAI Maintain Its Value?
Dai uses game theory and carefully balances economic incentives to continuously sustain the value of $1. When single Dai falls below $1, the system incentivizes users to increase the price. When one Dai is worth more than $1, the incentives work the other way around. In any of these occasions, rational actors can make money due to the price swings. The further Dai deviates from the mean, the better incentives there are to fetch the price back to $1.

In addition to that, Dai coins are always over-collateralized. It means that instead of backing coins 1:1 with their underlying assets (Ether in this case), the ratio is always more than 1:1. For example, if Ether is worth $100 and the collateralization ratio is 150%, you can create 66 Dai.


                                                                                                              $$$$ USDC $$$$

USD Coin (USDC) is a relatively fresh stablecoin pegged to the US dollar. It was launched on September 26, 2018, in collaboration between Circle and Coinbase. USDC is an alternative to other USD backed cryptocurrencies like Tether (USDT) or TrueUSD (TUSD).

In a nutshell, USD Coin is a service to tokenize US dollars and facilitate their use over the internet and public blockchains. Besides, USDC tokens can be changed back to USD at any time. The execution of issuing and redeeming USDC tokens is ensured with ERC-20 smart contract.

Bringing US dollars on the blockchain allows moving them anywhere in the world within minutes, and brings much-needed stability to cryptocurrencies. Also, it opens up new opportunities for trading, lending, risk-hedging and more.

How Does USD Coin Work?
USD Coins aren’t just being printed out of thin air. Circle guarantees that every USDC token is backed with a single US dollar. The process of turning US dollars into USDC tokens is called tokenization.

Tokenizing USD into USDC is a three-step process:

1) A user sends USD to the token issuer's bank account.
2) The issuer uses USDC smart contract to create an equivalent amount of USDC.
3) The newly minted USDC are delivered to the user, while the substituted US dollars are held in reserve.

Redeeming USDC for USD is as easy as minting the token, except the process is reversed:

1) A user sends a request to the USDC issuer to redeem an equivalent amount of USD for USDC tokens.
2) The issuer sends a request to the USDC smart contract to exchange the tokens for USD and take an equivalent amount of tokens out of the circulation.
3) The issuer sends the requested amount of USD from its reserves back to the user’s bank account. The user receives the net amount equivalent to the one in USDC tokens, minus all incurred fees).

Unlike the most popular stablecoin Tether (USDT), creators of the USD Coin are obligated to provide full transparency and work with a range of financial institutions to maintain full reserves of the equivalent fiat currency.

All USDC issuers are required to regularly report their USD holdings, which are then published by Grant Thornton LLP. All the monthly attestation reports can be found here.

How to Use USD Coin
USD Coin (USDC) is a 1:1 representation of one US dollar on the Ethereum blockchain. It’s an ERC-20 token and can be used with every app which supports the standard.

To tokenize or redeem USDC with Circle, you need to register an account, verify your identity (KYC), and link a legitimate bank account. Circle USD platform allows users to perform four core actions:

Tokenize USD;
Redeem USDC;
Transfer USDC out to ERC20 compatible Ethereum addresses;
Deposit USDC from external Ethereum wallet addresses.
Circle USDC doesn’t charge users any fees for tokenizing and redeeming services, except there is a $50 commission for incorrect and rejected bank transfers. For Coinbase USDC operations, all the standard fees apply.

A minimum USDC redemption amount is 100 USDC. The tokens are processed on business days only, and the process can take up to 24 hours.

There’s no minimum tokenization amount, and the process can take up to 2 business days.

In general, stablecoins like USDC are used to:

Short cryptocurrencies without cashing out and make it easier to buy cryptocurrencies in the future;
Avoid traditional financial instruments and institutions;
Avoid hyperinflation (for people living in countries like Venezuela or Turkey);
Send money instantly, globally, securely and at low cost;
Purchase items in various crypto dApps, exchanges, and blockchain-based games.


                                                                                                                         $$$$ XMR $$$$

Monero (XMR) is a cryptocurrency which focuses on being untraceable and private. Its design differs from Bitcoin’s in a few key ways, but it should be understood as a cryptocurrency similar to Bitcoin – it can be used to buy and sell things, and can be exchanged for other  coins or tokens.

So Monero XMR is a cryptocurrency focused on privacy and anonymity. Bitcoin is actually pseudonymous and BTC transactions are still traceable, but XMR transactions can be fully anonymized like physical cash. It is a fork of Bytecoin, the original privacy coin.

Of course, each physical dollar has a serial number on it that’s traced by FDIC-insured banks and governments. But it’s not necessary to see someone’s bank account balance to accept their dollar bill. In the same way, retailers only need to verify you have enough to cover your transaction when you use a debit or credit card.

Monero uses ring signature cryptography to reduce the amount of information used in cryptocurrency transactions. This gives the sender and receiver of XMR transactions the ability to verify the transaction in privacy.

Strong encryption, a streamlined blockchain, and infinite supply make Monero a strong privacy coin with a solid future ahead of it. Before diving into the nuts and bolts of the project, let’s look at the crypto market performance of the Monero XMR crypto coin.

Behind the Veil of Anonymous
Anonymity online is a hot-button issue that’s important for everyone. Every time you log in to your Samsung device using Google’s OS to connect to AT&T’s network and browse Amazon’s app, a lot of hands are touching, monitoring, and even selling your data and habits. Tech-savvy people use VPNs, proxies, and TOR networks to avoid being traced.

However, financial transactions and other personal information were used to track people centuries before we walked around with the internet in our pockets.

Using XMR for dark-web transactions, you have the best chance at anonymous online transactions…at least that’s what they say.

Monero aggressively defends its platform’s privacy, pointing out a CryptoNote bug that affects privacy coins like Bytecoin. But privacy and anonymity online are never guaranteed, even with Monero’s dedication.

Monero still uses a similar two-key authentication method for transactions on other blockchains. It just adds an extra step. Your public key is used by the sender to generate a random one-time key, and the receiver uses a private key to receive. Brute-forcing such a system would be difficult, even with quantum computing, but no matter how much you encrypt an individual transaction, metadata holds answers.

This is where ring signatures come in to make things even more difficult. Essentially every output also has multiple false outputs to trick the system. Picture the most complicated bank vault you ever saw in a major Hollywood movie, multiply by ten, and this is what Monero promises.

Tor traffic has long been monitored by government watchdogs like the NSA using the Navy’s powerful networking tools. And even reducing transactions to minimal data hasn’t stopped researchers from reportedly using big-data analytics to trace over 80 percent of XMR transactions on the Monero blockchain.

While the actual transaction itself is being veiled, all the contextual information around it can help pinpoint transactions. In addition, if your private key is compromised, someone could trace all your individual transactions, so it’s vital you keep your private Monero key secure.


                                                                                                                         $$$$ BSV $$$$

Bitcoin SV (BSV) is a cryptocurrency which was created after another cryptocurrency named Bitcoin Cash (BCH) experienced a hard fork. Even though it was introduced a little bit prior to the fork, the blockchain of Bitcoin Cash has split in two competing coins – Bitcoin ABC (Adjustable Blocksize Cap) and Bitcoin SV (Satoshi Vision).

The latter cryptocurrency is what BSV represents, aiming to bring back the values and the technology of the original Bitcoin which include decentralization, using cryptocurrency as payments and trade methods as well as elevating the capacity of the network itself.

What Are The Benefits Of Bitcoin SV (BSV)
The main advantages of Bitcoin SV (BSV) include:

Scalability: The block size of this cryptocurrency is 128MB while the original Bitcoin Cash (BCH) was only 32MB. With a bigger block size, BSV helps to scale the network and allow more transactions to be performed.
Transaction Costs: The BSV developers wanted to minimize the transaction cost. This is how they created affordable and fast transactions at a large scale, which they believe are the keys to success for the new BSV cryptocurrency.
Network Development: Satoshi’s view was implemented to the existing blockchain. This BSV implementation took lots of work – making Bitcoin SV a chain which underwent a lot more changes compared to its competitor – Bitcoin ABC.


                                                                                                                      $$$$ AVC $$$$

AvC coin is one of the cryptocurrency that is engaged in the Masternode Platform We are the main developer in the world of cryptocurrency to develop a shared masternode platform with payment using the AVC coin.

AvC coin claims to be engaged in the Masternode Platform for payment applications.

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                                                                                                                $$$$ VSYS $$$$

V SYSTEMS (also known as VSYS) is a blockchain database cloud project that aims to create a brand new digital economy era. The project will deliver the world’s first object-oriented general purpose distributed database, which is empowered to carry complex decentralized applications.

V Systems has a native currency traded under the symbol VSYS, with 3,721,578,678 issued. The all time high back in July was $0.297542 USD per coin, up from the all time low in March of $0.027344 USD.

At the time of writing, VSYS is currently ranked #37 on CoinMarketCap, with a market capitalization estimated at $149,848,434 USD.

VSYS is currently trading on fifteen exchanges with seven trading pairs. 

VSYS had their IEO in March 2019 with 300,000 participating and has been announcing new projects, partnerships and exchange listings ever since. Hodlers of this coin can take advantage of V Systems’ non-restrictive staking mechanism. Coin holders can lease them to supernodes and earn a share of the rewards from minted blocks. That share varies among the different supernodes along with the interest payment cycle.


                                                                                                               $$$$ MANA $$$$

MANA is the digital asset token used to pay for goods and services in Decentraland. It is built on Ethereum in accordance with the ERC20 standard for tokens. MANA can be bought and sold for fiat currency or other digital currencies.

MANA can be stored in a crypto wallet and custodian like Gemini.


                                                                                                                   $$$$ BAT $$$$

Basic Attention Token (BAT) is a cryptocurrency that could revolutionize how content creators are paid and how users see adverts.

Why Basic Attention Token (BAT) is a good investment
Basic Attention Token is already positioned for mass adoption through its complimentary product, Brave Browser with 5.5 million active monthly users within only a month of its release in April.

Through Brave, BAT will be used to pay content creators and publishers through tips by loyal fans and users will also earn BAT for viewing ads.

Basic Attention Token is one of very few cryptocurrencies with a legit use case and working product. Combine this with the founder Brenden Eich having projects like the Javascript programming language and Firefox browser under his belt.

This give me increased confidence that Basic Attention Token can reach mass adoption, thus increasing its demand, its use and in turn its value.
How you can earn Basic Attention Token (BAT)
Users: Download Brave Browser, enable Brave Rewards and use it the way you would normally use your browser. To enable Brave Rewards, click on the BAT symbol on end of the URL bar, then click on Reward settings.

Once you reach the settings page, simply toggle “Brave Rewards” to on and you can start earning BAT.

Occasionally a little notification will show up in the bottom right corner of the screen, these are adverts and you will be paid in Basic Attention Token for clicking on the notification and viewing the advertisers website.


                                                                                                                    $$$$ ENJ $$$$

Enjin is a blockchain platform designed to change the video game industry by tokenizing in-game items.

Enjin Coin (ENJ) is a cryptocurrency and blockchain platform designed for the video game industry. It was created on the Ethereum blockchain by Enjin, a company that helps over 20 million gamers create sandbox forums and communities around their favorite games. Enjin Coin extends this already-existing platform into a blockchain video game development engine. 

The Singapore based company also announced a partnership with Samsung in 2019 that integrated its technology into South Korean Galaxy S10 models. This announcement sent the price skyrocketing and created a major media buzz.

Video games fuel a massive industry. According to the Entertainment Software Association (ESA), 75% of Americans have at least one gamer in their household, and 65% of American adults play video games.

Enjin’s platform is designed to tokenize in-game items, trade among players, and more. It’s very similar to the Worldwide Asset eXchange (WAX) created by OPSkins and GameCredits. This gives it many of the same problems in convincing developers to allow third-party marketplaces for in-game earnings. But partnerships with Samsung, Unity, PC Gamer, Arena Match, NRG eSports, and others gives it a fighting chance.

And by incorporating blockchain-based digital collectibles into the mix, Enjin is proving nimble enough to survive among major gaming players like Steam, Nintendo, EA, Activision Blizzard, and more. The Enjin platform also incorporates ERC-1155 smart contracts, which function as a mix of ERC-20 and ERC-721 (we’ll dive in a little deeper below). This enables an efficient platform for blockchain video game design and would make Enjin Coin a blockchain version of Epic Games’ Unreal Engine. 

Let’s start our exploration of the Enjin platform with ENJ, its proprietary ERC-20 cryptocurrency token, on the cryptocurrency market.

ENJ can not be mined, and it’s destroyed when users create custom ERC-1155 assets. 

As an ERC-20 token, ENJ can be stored in any ERC20-compatible wallet, including MyEtherWallet, Trust Wallet, and hardware wallets from Trezor and Archos. The team also developed the Enjin Smart Wallet, which enables easy crypto purchased of digital goods. 


                                                                                                                 $$$$  EURS $$$$

EURS is the first euro-pegged digital asset, combining the benefits of the world’s second most-traded currency with the transparency, immutability, and efficiency of the blockchain.

EURS mirrors the value of the euro on the blockchain, and is supported by liquidity assurance mechanisms provided by our ecosystem partners. Each token is backed 1:1 by euros held in our reserve accounts. In addition to euros, EURS can be issued in exchange for securities, which are purchased by STASIS’ liquidity providers.

The token is supported by an ecosystem of liquidity providers, custodians, exchanges, payment platforms and others. In addition to direct emissions from STASIS, EURS can be purchased on ePayments and trades on several digital asset exchanges, including Globitex, HitBTC, and Changelly.

Enjin is a video game community and development platform that enables cross-platform development and exchange of digital goods. It’s aimed squarely at the highly fragmented video game industry and has a host of partnerships that prove its founders are serious about staking a claim in the massive video game industry. The success of Enjin hinges on these key factors:

Enjin is a pre-existing marketplace that integrated crypto and blockchain functionality into an already-existing community of over 20 million gamers worldwide.
ENJ is an ERC-20 token with widespread exchange/wallet support. Enjin also supports ERC-1155 smart contracts, enabling true tokenization of video game assets, fungible or not.
Enjin’s partners include Samsung, Unity, PC Gamer, and several eSportsbrands. This helped them attract dozens of game developers with blockchain-based releases planned.
With these pieces in place, Enjin has a strong hold on the gaming industry. Its development moves at a fast pace, it’s well-funded, and it secured key partnerships that put it on the forefront of the gaming industry. This project could outperform the general crypto market.


                                                                                                                 $$$$ VNDC $$$$

VNDC describes itself as a stablecoin developed by Union VNDC that is pegged 1:1 to the Vietnamese dong (VND). It has ERC20 and BEP2 tokens. It claims to be supported by sufficient cash and equivalent assets. It aims to become a gateway that allows users to convert their fiat money to stable coin (and vice versa).

VNDC claims to be the first stable coin of Vietnam that offers staking at a 12% annual rate. This system can then be utilized as a mechanism for trading and hedging in the global crypto markets. VNDC comprises VNDC Reserve and VNDC Network. Commercial users, resellers, and issuers are required to be involved in VNDC Reserve or VNDC Network.


                                                                                                                 $$$$ NBX $$$$

Netbox (NBX) describes itself as a decentralized web browser with an integrated blockchain node. Its Netbox Wallet is credited with rewards for browser usage.

NibbleClassic (NBX) is a forked POW mining crypto based on Turtlecoin with a similar basic structure as Turtlecoin. It is a sub-project with the founder of Turtlecoin directly guiding technology development. The NBX project dedicates to promoting and maintaining the easy-to-use characteristic of cryptocurrencies, which remain unknown to most people despite the overwhelming media coverage and popularity. Hence, NBX aims to truly apply cryptocurrency to real life without users being confused about technical details.


                                                                                                         $$$$ TURTLECOIN $$$$

In this review of Turtlecoin, we will take a look at one of the most interesting community driven cryptocurrency projects currently around.

Turtlecoin is a microcap cryptocurrency that is fully private, fast and easy to use. It is also one of the few coins that you can easily mine with your PC’s CPU.

So, what is Turtlecoin exactly and should you consider it? In this complete review, we will take an in-depth look into the project and will give you what you need to know.

Let’s dive into Turtlecoin.

What is Turtlecoin?
Turtlecoin is a cryptocurrency that was started 2017 by two developers. According to the tale of the founding, the two were in a bar and were discussing the plethora of fake ICOs and shitcoins in the market.


                                                                                                                                  $$$$ SERO $$$$

SERO is the world's first privacy coin Protocol supporting smart contract using Zero-Knowledge Proof. ... SERO is also the world's first Privacy Protection platform which allows developers to issue privacy coins and use them in DApps, that means DApps can have Privacy features.


                                                                                                                                  $$$$ AXE $$$$

AXE is a decentralized X11-based cryptocurrency. The foundation of AXE network is hybrid PoW/PoSe system. First-tier nodes provide hash power to move data and secure the blockchain, while the second tier of full nodes adds extra privacy and increases network performance.

AXE core clients are full nodes, upgradeable to Masternodes and the most secure way to access the network. Full node client downloads a complete copy of the blockchain and participating in transactions verification. Thin (mobile) clients are using SPV protocol to communicate with full nodes and perform operations without downloading a full copy of the blockchain.



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Great post very thorough... Love the description of each coin on the site thank you so much for this

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